About Orthopaedic Surgeon Speciality
An orthopaedic surgeon
is a trained medical professional who diagnoses and treats spinal disorders, arthritis, sports injuries, trauma, and fractures in men, women and children. Moreover, orthopaedic surgeons
perform surgical procedures affecting the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons, and nerves including arthritis, bone tumours, cerebral palsy, club foot, bunions, knock knees, dislocations, fractures, sprains, strains, tendon damage, osteoporosis, spine disorders etc. Orthopaedic surgeons
may practice privately, in hospitals or multi-specialty group.
In order to become a certified orthopaedic surgeon
, one must complete graduation from a medical college followed by 4-5 year residency program in a hospital. After that, orthopaedic surgeons may choose to practice general orthopaedic surgery
or can specialize in arthroscopy, foot and ankle, hand, joint replacement, musculoskeletal oncology, paediatric, rehabilitation, reconstructive surgery, shoulder and elbows, spine, sports medicine, trauma and fractures.
Some of the common orthopaedic surgeries performed regularly include hip, shoulder, ankle and knee replacement, back surgery as well as various arthroscopic procedures. Following are certain signs and symptoms which require immediate attention of an orthopaedic surgeon.
- Difficulty carrying objects or using a particular hand, or arm
- Any deformity of joints
- Joint pain that is more intense when resting or at night
- Pain in the joints or muscles and tendons that lasts more than a few days
- Inability to straighten the back or stiffness when standing
- Swelling or bruising around the joint or injury
- Any kind of infection observed by inflammation, heat, redness or fever
- Generally unusual symptoms to the area of pain
- Treat patients with musculoskeletal injuries and disease
- Perform orthopaedic surgeries as per established guidelines
- Utilize medical equipment and tools effectively to avoid any accidents
- Work with nurses, physicians and other hospital departments to ensure excellent patient care services
- Recommend proper diagnostic tests to identify patient’s illness
- Analyze patient’s symptoms and develop treatment plans
- Monitor and record patient’s progress
- Educate patients about treatment procedures
- Maintain up-to-date records of patient services and treatment procedures
- Communicate with patients to obtain their medical history
- Assess patient’s health condition and prescribe appropriate medications
Procedures performed by an orthopaedic surgeon
An orthopaedic surgeon performs a bone grafting procedure to repair complex bone fractures or fractures that fail to heal properly. Bone grafting may also be used to treat bone tumours.
Laminectomy is a surgical procedure in which part of the posterior bony arch, or lamina, of a vertebra is removed allows access to the disk. An orthopaedic surgeon performs laminectomy to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or on the nerve roots that emerge from the spinal canal. Cost of a Laminectomy procedure in India is around INR 5,50,000.
An osteotomy corrects bone deformities through cutting the bone and resetting it in a better position. An orthopaedic surgeon performs osteotomy on hips and knees to relieve pain and allow the joint to function properly. This procedure is commonly used to improve the weight-bearing position of the lower leg in people with osteoarthritis of the knee.
An orthopaedic surgeon performs patellectomy in case some very badly broken (fractures) of the patella cannot be put together. This procedure is rarely performed and usually done after a bad kneecap fracture.
Bone reduction is an orthopaedic surgery procedure that involves manipulation of a fractured bone or dislocated joint to the correct alignment. An orthopaedic surgeon can perform bone reduction by closed or open methods. In open method, fracture fragments are exposed surgically by dissecting the tissues by an orthopaedic surgeon. In closed method, manipulation of the bone fragments without surgical exposure of the fragments is done by an orthopaedic surgeon.
Bone resection is a surgical procedure in which an orthopaedic surgeon removes part or all of a bone. An orthopaedic surgeon performs bone resection to ease pain and improve movement when diseased joints in the feet make walking extremely difficult. This procedure is used to remove bunions from toes, and also used on the wrists, thumbs and elbows.
Joint arthroscopy is a surgical procedure in which an orthopaedic surgeon explores the inside of your joint by using an instrument known as an arthroscope. An orthopaedic surgeon performs joint arthroscopy to repair ligaments and tendons in the shoulder or to reconstruct ligaments in the knee. The procedure is used more for joints such as hips, wrists, elbows and ankles. Cost of a joint revision surgery in India is around INR 1,50,000-2,50,000.
Bone fusion is a procedure when two bones that form a joint are fused together to confine movement. An orthopaedic surgeon performs bone fusion to relieve pain and provide stability to the joint, making the joint bear weight more effectively. This form of orthopaedic surgery is used for ankles, wrists, spine, neck, fingers or thumbs.
Total Joint Replacement
Total joint replacement is an orthopaedic surgery in which a damaged joint is replaced with a prosthesis or artificial joint. An orthopaedic surgeon performs total joint replacement when all conservative treatments, such as medications and exercise, have failed to provide pain relief and improve joint function. Total joint replacement commonly includes hips, knees, ankles, toes, shoulders, elbows, wrists and fingers. Cost of a fasciotomy surgery in India starts from INR 5,00,000.
Lavage refers to thorough washing of an affected joint with high-volume saline solution and antibiotic content. An orthopaedic surgeon performs lavage to clean tissues damaged in trauma situations. This procedure may be done on knees, shoulders, feet, and hands.
Joint revision refers to the removal of the original implant or prosthesis, and replacing these with a new implant when referring to joint replacement surgery. An orthopaedic surgeon performs a joint revision surgery when implants fail for a variety of reasons such as polyethylene (plastic) wear, loosening, dislocation or deep infection. Cost of a joint revision surgery in India is around INR 2,00,000-7,00,000 depending upon the joint.
Fasciotomy is an orthopaedic procedure where the fascia, soft tissue component of the connective tissue system is cut to relieve tension or pressure. An orthopaedic surgeon performs fasciotomy to treat increased pressure, usually caused by inflammation, within a restricted space in the body. It may be used sometimes to treat chronic compartment stress syndrome. Cost of a fasciotomy surgery in India starts from INR 75,000.
Open Release Surgery
An open release surgery is a procedure where a ligament is cut to release pressure and relieve pain. An orthopaedic surgeon performs an open release surgery when non-surgical treatment has been unsuccessful if symptoms restrict normal daily activities if there is damage to the median nerve or a risk of nerve damage or if tumours or other growths need to be removed.
Tenotomy is a surgical procedure in which an orthopaedic surgeon releases the tendon, allowing the joint to move normally. An orthopaedic surgeon performs tenotomy to treat clubfoot which usually involves releasing the heel cord and Achilles tendon. Cost of a tenotomy surgery in India is around INR 25,000-1,00,000.
Debridement refers to the removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue which an orthopaedic surgeon performs to improve the healing potential of the remaining healthy tissue. Debridement may be done on any tissue or joint.
Discectomy is an orthopaedic procedure in which an intervertebral disc is removed. An orthopaedic surgeon performs discectomy to treat nerve root or spinal cord compression by removing the pressure. This procedure is used when all non-surgical treatments have failed to respond. Cost of a discectomy surgery in India is around INR 3,50,000-4,50,000.
Distraction Osteogenesis is an orthopaedic procedure used to reconstruct skeletal injuries or deformities and lengthen the long bones of the body. An orthopaedic surgeon performs distraction osteogenesis to correct limb discrepancies caused by congenital conditions and old injuries.
External fixation refers to stabilisation of a fracture or unstable joint by inserting pins into bone proximal. An orthopaedic surgeon performs an external fixation to treat open fractures, and sometimes may be used as a temporary solution. The procedure is used on fractures in which a cast would not allow proper alignment of the fracture.
Internal fixation refers to an insertion of screws or plates to stop motion across a fracture or joint to encourage bony healing or fusion. An orthopaedic surgeon performs an internal fixation on patients who have fractures in which the bones can be properly aligned.
Intramedullary Nailing or Rodding
Intramedullary Nailing or Rodding is an orthopaedic procedure is used for the fixation of fractures in which a nail or rod is inserted into the intramedullary canal of the bone. An orthopaedic surgeon performs this procedure in long bone fractures of the lower extremity, especially the femur and tibia that are not too close to the joint.
Limb Salvage refers to surgical removal of a tumour or infection without amputation of the affected extremity. An orthopaedic surgeon performs this procedure by replacing the affected bone in one of two ways - bone graft or artificial bone. Limb Salvage may also be used for infected tissue where blood supply is poor.
Percutaneous Pinning refers to insertion of pins into bone through small puncture wounds in the skin to stabilise a fracture or a dislocated joint. An orthopaedic surgeon performs this procedure to treat fractures that require an additional form of fixation. This is usually the case with displaced fractures of the first metacarpal and of the proximal phalanges of the hand.
Ankle fusion is a form of orthopaedic surgery in which an orthopaedic surgeon fuses two or more bones of your ankle into one piece. The process is also known as arthrodesis. An orthopaedic surgeon performs this procedure to treat arthritis in the ankle. Cost of an ankle fusion surgery in India is around INR 2,50,000-5,50,000.
Carpal Tunnel Release
Carpal tunnel release is a form of orthopaedic surgery in which an orthopaedic surgeon treats and potentially heals the painful condition known as carpal tunnel syndrome. An orthopaedic surgeon performs this procedure when non-surgical treatments have failed to respond or when the muscles of the hands or wrists are weak and actually getting smaller. Cost of a carpal tunnel release surgery in India starts from INR 64,000.
Hip Replacement Surgery
Hip replacement surgery, commonly known as total hip arthroplasty is a form of orthopaedic surgery in which an orthopaedic surgeon replaces a damaged hip joint with an artificial joint. An orthopaedic surgeon performs this procedure when there is a hip fracture or severe pain due to arthritis. Cost of a hip replacement surgery in India is around INR 4,00,000-5,00,000.
Knee Replacement Surgery
Knee replacement surgery, also called arthroplasty, is a form of orthopaedic surgery in which an orthopaedic surgeon resurfaces a knee damaged by arthritis. An orthopaedic surgeon performs this procedure on patients who have severe arthritis or severe knee injury. Cost of a knee replacement surgery in India is around INR 4,00,000-5,00,000.
Meniscal Transplant Surgery
Meniscal transplant surgery is a form of orthopaedic surgery in which an orthopaedic surgeon replaces your missing or damaged meniscus with a meniscus from a cadaver donor. An orthopaedic surgeon performs this procedure if there is irreversible damage to your meniscus. Cost of a meniscal transplant surgery in India is around INR 2,50,000-5,50,000.