About Neuro Surgeon Speciality

Neurosurgeons are the specialists who treat complications related to the central nervous system, the brain, and the spinal cord. Neurosurgeons mainly treat the neurological problems with the help of surgeries and medications. Removal of brain tumours, diagnosing brain cancer, back surgeries, etc. are some of the neurological procedures that are performed. While some neurosurgeons work in the general aspects of the neurosurgery, various others opt for various specializations and sub-specializations. Paediatric neurosurgery, peripheral nerve neurosurgery, spine neurosurgery etc. are some of the specializations.

A neurosurgeon also has to provide assistance to the patients of neurological disorders in matters related to the improvement of their memory and speech. Since surgeries related to brain are extremely complex, the responsibilities of a neurosurgeon assume more significance.

A neurosurgeon is a trained medical professional who diagnoses and treats diseases related to the nervous system including the brain, the spine and spinal cord, and the peripheral nerves in men, women and children. Neurosurgeons offer non-operative and world-class treatment to patients of all ages. In today’s practice, neurosurgeons perform more spine than brain surgeries. Some neurosurgeons have expertise in neck and lower back disorders, spinal cord injury, etc. 

Tumours of the brain, spine and skull, head or spinal cord trauma, degenerative spinal cord conditions and prolapsed discs, brain aneurysms and strokes, epilepsy, infections, movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, some psychiatric diseases, birth conditions such as spina bifida, conditions affecting cerebro-spinal fluid such as hydrocephalus are some of the conditions that a neurosurgeon provides treatment for. 

In order to become a certified neurosurgeon, one must complete 5.5 years MBBS degree followed by 2-3 years MS (Neurosurgery). Further, candidates can also opt for MCh (Neurosurgery) for super-specialisation in the field of neurosurgery. 

Subspecialties of neurosurgery

  • Paediatric neurosurgery
  • Neuro-oncology
  • Functional neurosurgery
  • Neurovascular surgery
  • Traumatology
  • Skull-base surgery
  • Spinal surgery

Conditions treated by a neurosurgeon

Anterior Cervical Corpectomy: Anterior cervical corpectomy is a procedure performed by a neurosurgeon when the cervical disease includes more than just the disc space. A neurosurgeon performs this procedure for multi-level cervical stenosis with spinal cord compression caused by bone spur growth. Cost of an anterior cervical corpectomy in India starts from INR 4,00,000. 

Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF): Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is a procedure performed by a neurosurgeon that involves removing a damaged disc to relieve spinal cord or nerve root pressure and alleviate corresponding pain, weakness and numbness. A neurosurgeon performs this procedure to treat a symptomatic cervical herniated disc and cervical degenerative disc disease. Cost of an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion in India starts from INR 3,50,000. 

Deep Brain Stimulation: Deep brain stimulation is a procedure performed by a neurosurgeon that involves implanting electrodes within certain areas of your brain. A neurosurgeon performs this procedure to treat a number of neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, epilepsy, chronic pain, obsessive compulsive disorder etc. Cost of a deep brain stimulation in India starts from INR 14,00,000. 

Craniotomy: A craniotomy is a procedure performed by a neurosurgeon that involves surgical removal of part of the bone from the skull to expose the brain. A neurosurgeon performs this procedure to treat brain tumour along with blood clot and control haemorrhage, inspect the brain, perform a biopsy, or relieve pressure inside the skull. Cost of a craniotomy in India starts from INR 2,25,000.  

Craniectomy: Craniectomy is a procedure performed by a neurosurgeon that involves removing a portion of the skull in order to relieve pressure on the underlying brain. A neurosurgeon performs this procedure to treat bleeding around the brain or excessive swelling of the brain caused by a severe brain injury.

Decompressive Laminectomy: Decompressive laminectomy is a procedure performed by a neurosurgeon to treat lower back spinal stenosis. A neurosurgeon performs this procedure to ease pressure on the spinal nerve roots caused by ageing along with treating spinal injuries, herniated disks, etc. Cost of a decompressive laminectomy in India starts from INR 4,00,000.

Endovascular Embolization: Endovascular embolization is a procedure performed by a neurosurgeon to treat abnormal blood vessels in your brain or other parts of your body. A neurosurgeon recommends this procedure when you are suffering from a brain aneurysm, uterine fibroids, abnormal growths in your circulatory system, arteriovenous malformations, or excessive nosebleeds.  

External Ventricular Drain: External ventricular drain is a tube placed by a neurosurgeon to reduce the volume of cerebrospinal fluid within the brain, thereby lowering intracranial pressure. A neurosurgeon recommends this to drain infected spinal fluid, to promote brain relaxation during surgery, in the face of acute hydrocephalus from aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage.  

Foraminotomy: Foraminotomy is a procedure performed by a neurosurgeon that aims to widen the foramina of the spine which is the narrow funnel through which nerve roots exit the spinal canal. A neurosurgeon performs this procedure to relieve pressure on compressed nerves. Cost of a foraminotomy in India starts from INR 1,90,000.

Medial Facetectomy: Medial facetectomy is a procedure performed by a neurosurgeon that involves removing one or both of the facet joints on a set of vertebrae. A neurosurgeon performs this procedure to decompress the spinal nerves being pinched by degenerated facet joints. 

Posterior Cervical Laminectomy: Posterior cervical laminectomy is a procedure performed by a neurosurgeon to remove bone spur formations or disc material by making a small incision in the middle of your neck. 

Spinal Cord Stimulation: Spinal cord stimulation is a procedure performed by a neurosurgeon where a spinal cord stimulator is surgically placed under your skin to send a mild electric current to your spinal cord. A neurosurgeon recommends this if you suffer chronic back, leg or arm pain and if other therapies have failed.

Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion is a procedure performed by a neurosurgeon to lessen the symptoms associated with a pinched nerve in the lower back. A neurosurgeon performs this procedure to help patients who have degenerative spine conditions, such as a herniated disc, spondylolisthesis or spinal stenosis.

Stereotactic Radiosurgery: Stereotactic radiosurgery is a form of radiation therapy used by a neurosurgeon to treat tumours and other problems in the brain, neck and other parts of the body. A neurosurgeon uses stereotactic radiosurgery to target high doses of radiation to the affected area with minimal impact on the surrounding healthy tissue.

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is a procedure performed by a neurosurgeon to treat obstructive hydrocephalus in children or adults. A neurosurgeon performs this procedure to create a bypass for the cerebrospinal fluid in the head that eliminates the need for a shunt. 

Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery: Endoscopic endonasal surgery is a procedure performed by a neurosurgeon to operate on areas at the front of the brain and the top of the spine through the nose. A neurosurgeon performs this procedure to remove tumours in areas near the base of the brain or skull and at the top of the spine. 

Laminotomy: Laminotomy is a procedure performed by a neurosurgeon that involves surgical incision and removal of a small part of a bony area of the spine called the lamina. A neurosurgeon performs this procedure to relieve pressure in your spinal canal and on spinal nerves. Cost of a laminotomy in India starts from INR 5,50,000.

Microdiscectomy: Microdiscectomy is a procedure performed by a neurosurgeon to treat patients suffering from a herniated lumbar disc. In this procedure, a neurosurgeon removes portions of the herniated disc to relieve pressure on the spinal nerve column. Cost of a microdiscectomy in India starts from INR 2,25,000.

Spinal Fusion: Spinal fusion is a procedure performed by a neurosurgeon to join two or more vertebrae in your spine, eradicating motion between them. A neurosurgeon performs this procedure to impersonate the normal healing process of broken bones. Cost of a spinal fusion in India starts from INR 4,50,000.

Vagus Nerve Stimulation: Vagus nerve stimulation is a procedure performed by a neurosurgeon that involves implanting a device that stimulates the vagus nerve with electrical impulses. A neurosurgeon performs this procedure to treat epilepsy when other treatments have failed to give positive results. It is also used to treat severe form of depression. 

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