About Dentist Speciality

A dentist is a medical care professional who is responsible for a number of preventative and restorative oral procedures. Dentists work with patients to maintain and restore quality health to everything within the mouth. Dentists are most commonly found working in community dentist offices, hospital dentistry, dental research centres, and educational institutions. Some may work self-employed in their own office as well. A dentist is responsible for making sure that patients of all ages and sizes have their oral care needs covered. They are also responsible for providing their patients with the information that they need to prevent any problems from occurring to their teeth and mouth. This may include information on what foods should be avoided, how they can maintain proper dental health, and much more.
They are required to help patients to recover from any diseases that affect the oral cavity. Diagnosis, preventative care, and treatment procedures to the teeth and mouth are all major components of a dentist’s job.

A dentist is a trained medical professional who diagnoses and treats diseases related to teeth and gums in men, women and children.  Periodontitis, tooth decay, gingivitis, dental plaque, tooth loss, toothache, bad breath, dental abscess, mouth ulcer, dental calculus, bruxism, hyperdontia, and stimatitis are some of the medical conditions that a psychologist provides treatment for. 

In order to become a certified dentist, one must complete graduation from a medical college followed by 4 years of training at a dental school. Dentists use a range of medical equipments such as x-ray machines, drills, mouth mirrors, probes, lasers, digital scanners, and other computer technologies to provide the best possible treatment to patients. 

Different types of dentists

General Dentists: These type of dentists promote good dental health and the prevention of dental diseases.

Endodontists: These type of dentists usually perform root canal procedure by which they remove the nerves and blood supply from injured or infected teeth.

Oral and maxillofacial surgeons: These type of dentists perform surgeries related to the mouth, jaws, teeth, gums, neck, and head.

Oral pathologists: These type of dentists diagnose conditions in the mouth, such as bumps or ulcers, and oral diseases, such as cancer.

Orthodontists: These type of dentists straighten teeth by applying pressure to the teeth with braces or other appliances.

Paediatric dentists: These type of dentists focus on dentistry for children.  

Periodontists: These type of dentists treat the gums and bone supporting the teeth. 

Prosthodontists: These type of dentists replace missing teeth with permanent fixtures, such as crowns and bridges, or with dentures. 

Responsibilities of a dentist
  • Remove decay from teeth and fill cavities
  • Repair cracked or fractured teeth and remove teeth
  • Place whitening agents on teeth

Examine X-rays of teeth, gums, the jaw, and nearby areas in order to diagnose problems
Make models and measurements for dental appliances, such as dentures, to fit patients
Teach patients about diets, flossing, the use of fluoride and other aspects of dental care
Medical conditions treated by a dentist.

Tooth Decay

Tooth decay is a common dental problem caused by bacteria in your mouth, frequent snacking, sipping sugary drinks and not brushing your teeth properly. Tooth decay is common in children and older adults. A dentist is a specialist with expertise in the management of tooth decay. 

Symptoms of tooth decay
Symptoms include toothache, tooth sensitivity, sharp pain when eating or drinking something sweet, hot or cold, visible holes or pits in your teeth, brown, black or white staining on any surface of a tooth, pain when you bite down. 

Treatment of tooth decay
A dentist may suggest fluoride treatment, filling comprising tooth-coloured composite resins, porcelain or combinations of several materials, dental crowns, root canal treatment, bridge or a dental implant. 

Gingivitis

Gingivitis is a common dental problem in which there is an inflammation of the gums, usually caused by a bacterial infection. If left untreated, it can lead to tooth loss. A dentist is a specialist with expertise in the management of gingivitis. 

Symptoms of gingivitis
Symptoms include gums that are red, tender, or swollen, bleeding gums, gums that have pulled away from the teeth, loose teeth, pus between teeth and gums, pain when chewing, sensitive teeth, partial dentures that no longer fit, foul-smelling breath that does not go away after you brush your teeth.

Treatment of gingivitis
A dentist may suggest professional teeth cleaning without surgery. He may also prescribe medicines to treat gingivitis including antibiotic mouthwash, time-release antiseptic chips containing chlorhexidine, antibiotic microspheres made with minocycline, oral antibiotics and doxycycline. 

Periodontitis

Periodontitis is a harmful dental problem that destroys the soft tissue and damages the bone supporting your teeth, ultimately leading to tooth loss. A dentist is a specialist with expertise in the management of periodontitis. 

Symptoms of periodontitis
Symptoms include swollen gums, purplish gums, gums that feel tender when touched, receding gums, spaces developing between your teeth, pus between your teeth and gums, bad breath, foul smell in your mouth, loose teeth, etc. 

Treatment of periodontitis
A dentist may suggest scaling, root planing and topical or oral antibiotics to help control bacterial infection. In case of advanced periodontitis, a dentist may recommend flap surgery, soft tissue grafts, bone grafting, guided tissue regeneration or enamel matrix derivative application. 

Dental Plaque

Dental plaque is a sticky film of bacteria that develops on teeth, above and below the gum line. It should be regularly removed as it may cause serious damage to teeth. A dentist is a specialist with expertise in the management of dental plaque. 

Symptoms of dental plaque
Symptoms include film on the teeth, receding gums, bad breath, pain or bleeding gums.

Treatment of dental plaque
A dentist may suggest a fluoride treatment, fillings or restorations, dental crowns, root canal treatment or tooth extraction for the treatment of dental plaque. 
 
Tooth Loss

Tooth loss is a dental problem in which one or more teeth become loose and fall out. Children, adults and older adults all are at risk for tooth loss, especially if proper oral hygiene is not practiced. A dentist is a specialist with expertise in the management of tooth loss.

Symptoms of tooth loss
Symptoms include swollen or red gums, soreness, bleeding gums, gum infections, gaps between the teeth and gums, receding gums, loose teeth, bad breath, abscessed gums, unpleasant taste in the mouth, problems with your bite.  

Treatment of tooth loss
A dentist may suggest permanent treatments for tooth loss such as dental implants and implant-supported dental bridges. 

Bad Breath (Halitosis)

Bad breath, commonly known as halitosis can affect people of all ages. It can be embarrassing and in some cases may even cause anxiety. A dentist is a specialist with expertise in the management of bad breath.

Symptoms of bad breath
Symptoms include a bad smell in your mouth and a bad taste in your mouth.

Treatment of bad breath
A dentist may recommend deep dental cleaning along with the use of artificial saliva product if dry mouth causes your odour problem.

Oral Thrush

Oral thrush is typically a mild fungal infection that develops on the inside of your mouth and on your tongue. The Candida Albicans fungus causes oral thrush. A dentist is a specialist with expertise in the management of oral thrush.

Symptoms of oral thrush
Symptoms include creamy white bumps on the tongue, inner cheeks, gums, or tonsils, slight bleeding when the bumps are scraped, pain at the site of the bumps, dry, cracked skin at the corners of the mouth and difficulty swallowing.

Treatment of oral thrush
A dentist may recommend oral antifungal medication such as fluconazole, a clotrimazole lozenge, nystatin, which is an antifungal mouthwash, itraconazole, and amphotericin B, which is a drug used to treat severe infections.

Dry Mouth

Dry mouth, commonly known as xerostomia, is a common condition in which your mouth is unusually dry. It is generally caused by a decrease in saliva produced by the salivary glands. A dentist is a specialist with expertise in the management of dry mouth.

Symptoms of dry mouth
Symptoms include dryness in your mouth or throat, saliva that seems thick and stringy, bad breath, difficulty chewing, speaking and swallowing, a changed sense of taste, problems wearing dentures, more frequent tooth decay, gum irritation and gum disease.

Treatment of dry mouth
A dentist may prescribe medication that stimulates saliva such as pilocarpine or cevimeline along with suggesting changing medicines that cause a dry mouth.

Stomatitis

Stomatitis refers to a sore or an inflammation inside of the mouth. The sore can develop in the cheeks, gums, inside of the lips, or on the tongue. A dentist is a specialist with expertise in the management of stomatitis.

Symptoms of stomatitis
Symptoms include round or oval ulcers with a red, inflamed border and scars in the mouth.

Treatment of stomatitis
A dentist may prescribe topical creams with benzocaine along with cimetidine, colchicine, or oral steroid medications for the treatment of stomatitis.

Oral Herpes

Oral herpes is an infection mainly of the mouth and lips caused by a specific type of the herpes simplex virus. A dentist is a specialist with expertise in the management of oral herpes.

Symptoms of Oral herpes
Symptoms include painful sores on the upper and lower lips, gums, tongue, roof of the mouth, inside the cheeks or nose, and sometimes on the face, chin, and neck.

Treatment of Oral herpes
A dentist may prescribe acyclovir, famciclovir or valacyclovir to treat mouth sores. However, symptoms may go away on their own without treatment in 1 to 2 weeks.

Toothache

Toothache refers to pain in and around the teeth and jaws that’s typically caused by tooth decay, infected gums, tooth fracture, grinding teeth etc. A dentist is a specialist with expertise in the management of toothache.

Symptoms of toothache
Symptoms include tooth pain that may be sharp, throbbing, or constant, swelling around the tooth fever or headache, foul-tasting drainage from the infected tooth. 

Treatment of toothache
A dentist will examine your mouth with X-ray. If your toothache is caused by tooth decay, he will replace the tooth with a filling. Otherwise, you may require root canal treatment. 

Mouth Ulcers

Mouth ulcers, commonly known as canker sores, are tiny painful lesions that develop in your mouth or at the base of your gums. A dentist is a specialist with expertise in the management of mouth ulcers.

Symptoms of mouth ulcers
Symptoms include a painful sore or sores inside your mouth, on the tongue, soft palate, sores in your mouth that are round, white, or grey in colour, fever, physical sluggishness or swollen lymph nodes.

Treatment of mouth ulcers
In case of large sores, a dentist may prescribe an antimicrobial mouth rinse, a corticosteroid ointment, or a prescription or non-prescription solution to reduce the pain and irritation.

Dental Abscess

Dental abscess refers to a collection of pus that can form inside the teeth, in the gums, or in the bone that holds the teeth in place caused by a bacterial infection. A dentist is a specialist with expertise in the management of dental abscess.

Symptoms of dental abscess
Symptoms include throbbing pain in the affected tooth or gum, pain that spreads to your ear, jaw and neck, pain that's worse when lying down, redness and swelling in your face, loose tooth, shiny, red and swollen gums, sensitivity to hot or cold food and drink, bad breath.

Treatment of dental abscess
A dentist may suggest removing the affected tooth, root canal treatment or incision and drainage.  

Gum Disease

Gum disease refers to a condition where the gums become swollen, sore or infected. Early stage of gum disease is known as gingivitis. A dentist is a specialist with expertise in the management of gum disease.

Symptoms of gum disease
Symptoms include bleeding gums, swollen, red or tender gums, receding gums, bad taste in mouth, loose teeth, a change in the way your teeth come together, a change in the fit of partial dentures, visible pus surrounding the teeth and gums, teeth that are overly sensitive to cold or hot temperatures.

Treatment of gum disease
A dentist may suggest scaling and root planning to treat diseased periodontal pockets and gum infection. In severe cases, bone grafting may be performed to restore lost bone.

Teeth Grinding (Bruxism)

Teeth grinding is a dental problem where you grind, gnash or clench your teeth. Persistent teeth grinding can cause jaw pain and discomfort and wear down your teeth. A dentist is a specialist with expertise in the management of teeth grinding.

Symptoms of teeth grinding
Symptoms include teeth grinding or clenching, teeth that are flattened, fractured, chipped or loose, worn tooth enamel, increased tooth sensitivity, jaw or face pain or soreness, tired or tight jaw muscles, pain that feels like an earache, indentations on your tongue etc. 

Treatment of teeth grinding
A dentist may suggest splints and mouth guards along with correcting teeth that aren't properly aligned. He may also prescribe certain medicines such as muscle relaxants and onabotulinumtoxina (botox) injections. 

Angular Cheilitis

Angular Cheilitis refers to a stirring lesion that occurs at the corner of your mouth. When a person develops angular cheilitis the first symptom is usually chapped lips. A dentist is a specialist with expertise in the management of angular cheilitis.

Symptoms of angular cheilitis
Symptoms include itching, cracking, tenderness, swelling, bleeding and sores. 
 
Treatment of angular cheilitis
Treatment of angular cheilitis depends on the cause. A dentist may topical antibiotic ointments or creams, anti-fungal cream, vitamin B supplements along with dietary changes. 

Dry Socket

Dry socket refers to a painful dental condition that happens when you have an enduring adult tooth extracted. It occurs when the blood clot at the site of the tooth extraction fails to develop. A dentist is a specialist with expertise in the management of dry socket.

Symptoms of dry socket
Symptoms include severe pain within a few days after a tooth extraction, partial or total loss of the blood clot at the tooth extraction site, visible bone in the socket, pain that radiates from the socket to your ear, eye, temple or neck, bad breath or a foul odour coming from your mouth, unpleasant taste in your mouth.

Treatment of dry socket
A dentist may suggest flushing out the socket, medicated dressings, pain medication and self care.  

Impacted Wisdom Teeth

Impacted wisdom teeth are third molars at the back of the mouth that don't have enough room to develop typically. Impacted wisdom teeth can result in other dental problems. A dentist is a specialist with expertise in the management of impacted wisdom teeth.

Symptoms of impacted wisdom teeth
Symptoms include red or swollen gums, tender or bleeding gums, jaw pain, swelling around the jaw, bad breath, an unpleasant taste in your mouth, difficulty opening your mouth.

Treatment of impacted wisdom teeth
If impacted wisdom teeth are causing pain or other dental problems then a dentist may recommend teeth extraction.

Temporomandibular Joint Disorder (TMJ)

Temporomandibular joint disorder refers to non-functioning of the hinge connecting the upper and lower jaw. It feels like the jaw is popping or clicking or getting stuck. A dentist is a specialist with expertise in the management of temporomandibular joint disorder.

Symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder
Symptoms include pain or tenderness of your jaw, pain in one or both of the temporomandibular joints, aching pain in and around your ear, difficulty chewing or pain while chewing, aching facial pain, locking of the joint, making it difficult to open or close your mouth.

Treatment of temporomandibular joint disorder
A dentist may prescribe non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, tricyclic antidepressants and muscle relaxants. When medications fail to respond, a dentist may recommend arthrocentesis, TMJ arthroscopy, modified condylotomy or open-joint surgery.  

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