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Auditory Brainstem Implant (ABI): Overview, risks, expectations, results and more

  • Posted on- Jul 21, 2016
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An auditory brainstem implant provides hearing to people with hearing loss who cannot benefit from a hearing aid or cochlear implant. Most commonly this is when there is an absent or very small hearing nerve or severely abnormal inner ear (cochlea). The auditory brainstem implant directly stimulates the hearing pathways in the brainstem, bypassing the inner ear and hearing nerve.

Originally developed for adults diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 2, a rare genetic condition that causes tumours to grow on nerves, the surgery is now considered for adults and children with other nerve and inner ear abnormalities.

Why auditory brainstem implant is done?

The objective of an auditory brainstem implant is to restore hearing. The procedure offers an alternative approach for people who aren't candidates to receive a cochlear implant - an electronic device that bypasses damaged or nonworking parts of the inner ear (cochlea) and directly stimulates the auditory nerve. A cochlear implant typically provides better quality sound but cannot be used in all situations.

Reasons you may not be eligible to receive a cochlear implant include having:

  • A small or absent auditory nerve
  • An unusually shaped cochlea
  • Scarring of the cochlea caused by infection, such as meningitis
  • Damage from a skull fracture

An auditory brainstem implant bypasses the damaged auditory nerves and connects directly to the brainstem to help you detect sounds.

Risks involved with an auditory brainstem implant

Although rare, complications following auditory brainstem implants may include infection (meningitis), cerebrospinal fluid leaks, facial nerve weakness, pain and dizziness. In some cases, despite appropriate device placement, patients do not receive any hearing benefit.

Expectations during an auditory brainstem implant

Auditory brainstem implants have three main parts:
  • A microphone and sound processor positioned behind the ear to pick up sounds
  • A decoding chip placed under the skin to transmit information picked up by the microphone
  • Electrodes connected directly to the brainstem that, when stimulated, alert you to sound

If you have neurofibromatosis type 2, the surgery is often performed at the same time tumours are removed from the auditory nerves.

Expectations after an auditory brainstem implant

After surgery, you will need multiple sessions with an audiologist to adjust the sound processor and learn how to use and interpret the signals. This process can take many months. You will typically see an audiologist every two to four months the first year and annually thereafter.

Results of an auditory brainstem implant

An auditory brainstem implant doesn't restore normal hearing, but it helps most people distinguish sounds such as telephone rings and car horns. Some people get good word recognition, while others get more general sound cues. In combination with lip reading, the cues can improve your communication with others.

Comments

user profile image
25-02-2018 03:03 AM

My son was born without the tools of hearing (deaf). Then we decided to have a surgery Auditory Brainstem Implantation. The outcome of the surgery is exceptional. He is now normal.

user profile image
01-03-2017 02:38 AM

I was deaf, then I decided to have a Auditory Brainstem Implantation. Its like my life has changed after going through Auditory Brainstem Implantation.

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