Call us  +91 8010 33 55 66

Hi Guest                                                     

      
Thallasemia Profile
Price Rs. 1800.00
Discount Rs. 360.00
Payable Rs.1440.00
Book Now
 
Full Body Health Checkup I
Price Rs. 2200.00
Discount Rs. 0.00
Payable Rs.2200.00
Book Now
 
View Article
Article Views: 105
Neuronal migration disorders- A group of birth defects
Posted on Oct 15, 2015
Neuronal migration disorders (NMDs) are a group of birth defects caused by the abnormal migration of neurons in the developing brain and nervous system. In the developing brain, neurons must migrate from the areas where they are born to the areas where they will settle into their proper neural circuits. Neuronal migration, which occurs as early as the second month of gestation, is controlled by a complex assortment of chemical guides and signals. When these signals are absent or incorrect, neurons do not end up where they belong. This can result in structurally abnormal or missing areas of the brain in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brainstem, or hippocampus.

Causes of neuronal migration disorders

The majority of neuronal migration disorders seen in clinical practice are thought to be genetic in cause. Much of what is known about neuronal migration disorders to date has been discovered from intense research identifying the genes affected in individuals with these diseases. The widespread abnormal expression of defective genes leads to the global nature of the disorders, contrary to acquired developmental brain insults, which lead to more localized defects. Several genes have been implicated in causing the various disorders, and they continue to be identified. The most well characterized genes include DCX on the X chromosome, responsible for double cortex syndrome, and LIS1 on chromosome 17, the first gene identified for lissencephaly. Cobblestone lissencephaly is associated with abnormalities in fukutin, a gene responsible for Fukuyama muscular dystrophy, a syndrome consisting of muscle weakness and cobblestone lissencephaly.

Symptoms of neuronal migration disorders

Most neuronal migration disorders present with some combination of epilepsy, mental retardation, and abnormalities in head size, known as microcephaly. Some patients, such as those with small heterotopias, may have no symptoms at all since the severity of the defect is very mild. Patients may also have cerebral palsy or abnormalities in muscle tone. Depending on the severity of the malformation, the level of mental retardation may vary from mild to severe. Patients with lissencephaly are usually severely delayed, have failure to thrive, and are microcephalic. They may also have accompanying eye problems. Patients with double cortex syndrome or schizencephaly may have milder symptoms and may only present with seizures. Schizencephaly may have associated complications of increased fluid pressure in the brain, known as hydrocephalus.

Diagnosis of neuronal migration disorders

Diagnosis is usually made by Neuro-imaging. CT scan or MRI of the brain will show the characteristic abnormality. MRI has better resolution and may detect polymicrogyria or small heterotopias more easily than CT. Genetic testing is available for patients with lissencephaly to identify whether the DCX or LIS1gene is defective. Knowledge of the genes affected allows for counselling and family planning. Laboratory tests are not useful in diagnosis.

Medications for neuronal migration disorders

There are no known cures for the various neuronal migration disorders at this time. The majority of treatments are directed towards symptoms caused by the malformed brain. Seizures may be treated with anticonvulsant medications. Refractory seizures may respond to neurosurgical removal of abnormal brain tissue. Neurosurgery may be required to relieve hydrocephalus, by placement of a shunt. Increased muscle tone may respond to injections of botulinum toxin or muscle relaxants. Patients may require feeding through a tube due to inability to swallow normally.

Prevention of neuronal migration disorders

Management is only supportive and preventive. If seizures develop, they usually need to be treated with anticonvulsants. A few children require a neurosurgical procedure such as shunting of hydrocephalus or encephalocele operation. Physiotherapy can be offered to facilitate development or prevent worsening of contractures although its efficacy has not been established. Feeding needs to be monitored and supplemental nasogastric or gastric tube feeding provided in some cases. Detailed eye assessment is also needed.
Written by : Lazoi Team
Read latest articles...
Read all articles of Lazoi Team
How to get rid of bloating..Read More
Bipolar Disorder: Symptoms, Causes and more..Read More
Drug Dilemma: Drugs banned overseas are easily available in India..Read More
How to escape post-work fatigue and bubble with energy..Read More
Conditions responsible for causing infertility..Read More
Search Doctors by Speciality
Best Pediatrician in Delhi
Best Dentist in Delhi
Best Psychiatrist in Delhi
Best Neurologist in Delhi
Best Oncologist in Delhi
Best Acupuncturist in Delhi
Best Chest & Allergy in Delhi
Best Diabetologist in Delhi
Best Physiotherapist in Delhi
Best Gynecologist in Delhi
Best Cardiologist in Delhi
Best Pulmonologist in Delhi
Best Dermatologist in Delhi
Best Dietician in Delhi
Best Endocrinologist in Delhi
Best Nephrologist in Delhi
Best Orthopaedic in Delhi
Best Psychologist in Delhi
Best Homeopathy in Delhi
Best Urologist in Delhi
Best Ayurvedic in Delhi
Best Nutritionist in Delhi
Best Orthopaedic Surgeon in Delhi
Best Plastic-Cosmetic Surgeon in Delhi
Best General Physician in Delhi
Best General Surgeon in Delhi
Best Ear Nose Throat (ENT) in Delhi
Best Gastroenterologist in Delhi
Best Laparoscopic Surgeon in Delhi
Best Ophthalmologist in Delhi
Best General Practitioner in Delhi
Best Dermatologist in Mumbai
Best Dentist in Mumbai
Best Ear Nose Throat (ENT) in Bangalore
Best Gastroenterologist in Bangalore
Best Gynecologist in Noida
Best General Physician in Noida
Best Pediatrician in Noida
Best Plastic Cosmetic Surgeon in Noida
Best Dermatologist in Pune
Best Gynecologist in Navi Mumbai
Best Pediatrician in Bangalore
Best Ophthalmologist in Bangalore
Best Dentist in Gurgaon
Best General Physician in Gurgaon
Best General Practitioner in Gurgaon
Best Ear Nose Throat (ENT) in Gurgaon
Best Gynecologist in Mumbai
Best Gynecologist in Thane
Best Dermatologist in Bangalore
Best Pediatrician in Mumbai
Best Physiotherapist in Faridabad
Best Orthopaedic in Faridabad
Best Dentist in Faridabad
Best Ophthalmologist in Faridabad
Best Gynecologist in Pune
Best Orthopaedic Surgeon in Mumbai
Best General Practitioner in Bangalore
Best Ear Nose Throat (ENT) in Mumbai
Best Orthopaedic Surgeon in Faridabad
Book Diagnostics Tests Delhi/NCR
Book Health Packages Delhi/NCR
Company
About Us
Press Releases
Terms of Use
Disclaimer
Privacy Policy
Sitemap
Home
Our Services
DocPractice™ Premium
Health Card
Hospital SignUp
Book Diagnostics Tests Delhi/NCR
Book Health Packages Delhi/NCR
Hospital listing
Diagnostic center
Corporates
Support
Contact us
Ecommerce Flow / Incorporated
Read Articles
Learn About Diseases
Learn About Diagnostic Tests
Learn About Generic Drugs
Videos
Social media
Follow us
Lazoi on Facebook Lazoi on Twitter Lazoi on Google Plus Lazoi on BlogSpot
Make online secure payment using


MasterCard  VISA  NetBanking 
Copyright © 2016 Lazoi Lifecare™ Pvt. Ltd. All rights reserved. Website Version 3.2.2