The reproductive system is composed of different organs that assist in the production of a new life. The primary organs of the reproductive system include the external genitalia and internal organs. Certain fluids, hormones and pheromones are constitutional to the effective functioning of the reproductive system.
The male reproductive system contains the testes, which produce sperms and the penis. Both of these organs are situated outside the abdominal cavity. The testes assist in temperature regulation of the sperm which is essential for the sperm to survive. If the testicles remain too close to the body, the high temperature may make it difficult for them to produce sperms. The testes are stored in scrotum (external pouch) where they generally remain cooler to facilitate sperm production.
The female reproductive system contains the vagina, uterus and ovaries. Ovaries are responsible for the production of the female's ova. The vagina is attached to the uterus through the cervix, while the Fallopian tubes connect the uterus to the ovaries.
Disorders associated with the male reproductive system
- Gynecomastia: This disease occurs due to unusual enlargement of breasts in men. The prime reason behind this disease is hormonal imbalance. Generally, when the male hormone (androgen) takes over after puberty, breast growth stops. In most of the cases, gynecomastia affects only one breast.
- Hydrocele: It is a health condition where fluid accumulates in and around the testes. It usually occurs in males over 40 years of age. The causes of Hydrocele include a physical injury to testes or other internal disturbances. If left unattended, hydrocele can lead to testicular tumors.
- Priapism: In this disease, men experience painful erection. During an erection, the corpora cavernosa and the corpus spongiosum become engorged with blood to give hardness to the penis. In Priapism, the erected part becomes painful leading to continuous pain during erection.
- Prostate Disorders: Prostate gland is an important functional gland in men. Any problem with this gland results in slew of diseases like prostate cancer, erectile dysfunction and enlarged prostate. Prostate disorders are usually seen in men over 60 years of age.
Disorders associated with the female reproductive system
- Amenorrhea: Amenorrhea refers to a health complication where a female fails to menstruate. Primary amenorrhea and secondary amenorrhea are its two types. While primary amenorrhea is the unusual delay in start of the menstrual cycle, secondary amenorrhea occurs when there is unusual stoppage of menstrual cycle after years of regular menses. Secondary amenorrhea is commonly seen in females who have not yet reached perimenopausal age.
- Cervical Erosion: When ulcers are formed in the cervix region, the condition is called cervical erosion. The main feature of this disease is bright red, pink spots around the cervical opening. Onset of the disease is marked by patches of mucous.
- Cervicitis: Cervicitis refers to inflammation of uterine cervix. Several mucous glands are present in and around the cervix which keep the vagina well lubricated. This is also the perfect breeding ground for bacteria and other microbes. Vaginal infections can be transmitted to the uterine cervix causing cervicitis.
- Oligomenorrhea: It is a health condition marked by prolonged gaps between two menses. Usually, a female menstruates every 25 to 30 days, but in oligomenorrhea, a female menstruates only 4-9 times a year. This disease occurs due to deficiency of estrogen and may lead to infertility.
There are several other diseases of reproductive system
which affect a large number of people. If you or any of your loved one experiences any of the above mentioned diseases, it should be immediately reported to a doctor.