Ovarian cysts are pockets in an ovary or on its surface. Women have two ovaries each about the size & shape of an almond and on each side of the uterus. Eggs (ova) which are developed and matured in the ovaries are released in monthly cycles during the childbearing years.
Many women have ovarian cysts at some time. Most ovarian cysts present little discomfort and are harmless. The majority of the cysts disappear without treatment within a few months.
Most ovarian cysts develop as a result of menstrual cycle (functional cysts). Other types of cysts are much less common.
Although there's no alternative to avoid ovarian cysts, regular pelvic examinations help ensure that changes in ovaries are diagnosed as early as possible. Be aware of the changes in monthly cycle which includes unusual menstrual symptoms, especially ones that persist for more than a few cycles.
What Kind of Cyst Is It?
Most cysts are considered "functional." They're a part of your monthly cycle.
Ovaries usually release one egg each month. It grows inside a tiny sac called a follicle. When the egg is ready to fertilize, the follicle breaks open and releases it. If the sac doesn't open, it causes a follicle cyst. These often go away in 1 to 3 months.
Once the egg is released, the empty follicle usually shrinks and helps get ready for the next egg. It becomes a cyst when it closes back up and fluid collects inside. It may go away in a few weeks. But it may bleed or cause pain as it grows.
In some women, their ovaries make a lot of small cysts. This condition is called polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It can make it hard to get pregnant. Other nonfunctional cysts may be caused by cancer. Ovarian cysts in women after menopause (once your period has stopped) are more likely to be cancerous than those in younger women.
Ovarian Cystectomy is referred to the removal of an ovarian cyst or tumor while protecting the ovary. Every sort of effort is made to preserve the ovary of the patients that desire fertility.
Considerations for ovarian cystectomy include:
Who cannot go through an Ovarian Cystectomy?
Removal of the full ovary is recommended over ovarian cystectomy, especially if the cyst appears complex on the ultrasound. Preserving the ovary in a post menopausal patient is of a little benefit and the possibility of malignancy is greater than in younger patients.
Removal of the ovary is preferred to avoid the rupture and spill of the cancerous cells into the pelvis. The ovary should be sent for the analysis during the surgery, and a staging procedure should be performed if cancer is confirmed.
- The ovarian cyst is very large
As the cyst or mass grows, it replaces the normal ovarian tissue. In cases of very large cysts, there is no normal ovarian tissue remaining.
If the ovarian mass or cyst has caused the ovary to twist, this will cause the ovary to die because the blood supply to the ovary is blocked. In most cases, it is not possible to revive the ovary and the entire ovary has to be removed.
How is Ovarian Cystectomy performed?
Masses of all sizes can be removed laparoscopically. Typically, one or two tiny incisions are made and one slightly larger incision is necessary for an ovarian cystectomy. The smaller incisions are made at the belly button and on the far right or left side in the bikini line. The larger incision is made just above the pubic bone. The larger incision is used to remove the cyst.
Cysts or ovarian masses that can be cancerous may require complete removal of the ovary to avoid damage. If cancerous masses damage, patients will require chemotherapy due to the discharge of cancerous cells into the pelvis.
Laparoscopic Ovarian Cystectomy
Laparoscopic Ovarian Cystectomy is the preferred approach to managing benign ovarian cysts in adolescents and adults. The intra operative diagnosis of these cases was highly correlated with the final pathology.
Laparotomy Ovarian Cystectomy
However, laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy has become the standard surgical approach for treating benign ovarian cysts laparotomy ovarian cystectomy continues to be an alternative approach. Indications for laparotomy ovarian cystectomy include large, complex cysts that cannot be removed through the laparoscope, cysts for which the benign nature is under question, and for cysts in which spillage of contents would result in significant morbidity.
Robotic Assisted Surgery
Robotic-assisted surgery is one of the latest innovations in the field of minimally invasive gynecologic surgery. A recent study showed a number of gynecologic procedures including ovarian cystectomy which is performed with robotic assistance and reported good outcomes and a number of advantages with this approach.
The patient should properly calculate and ensure which proper approach is used before having an ovarian cystectomy. This is particularly important when the cyst is suspected to be malignant. In cases involving neonates, the expertise of a pediatric surgeon may be required.
Which is the best hospital available for Ovarian Cystectomy in India?
The best hospital available for Ovarian Cystectomy in India is Fortis La Femme Shalimar Bagh, Delhi.
What is the estimated cost of Ovarian Cystectomy in India?
The estimated cost of Cystectomy in India will be approx Rs. 1 Lakh.
Which specialty of doctor is to be consulted for Ovarian Cystectomy?
A Gynecologist is to be consulted if a patient wants to perform Ovarian Cystectomy.