The Oropouche virus (OROV) is one of the most common orthobunyaviruses. When OROV infects humans, it causes a rapid fever illness called Oropouche fever. It is prominent cause of insect-transmitted viral disease in Central and South America, of a half a million people affected in 2005. OROV is considered to be an arbovirus due to the method of transmission by the mosquitoes Aedes and Culex among sloths, marsupials, primates, and birds. OROV was first described in Trinidad in 1955 when the prototype strain was isolated from the blood of a febrile human patient and from mosquitoes. In Brazil, OROV was first described in 1960 when it was isolated from a three-toed sloth and mosquitoes captured nearby.
Large epidemics are common and very swift, one of the earliest largest having occurred at the city of Belem, in the Brazilian Amazon state of Para, with 11,000 recorded cases. In the Brazilian Amazon, oropouche is the second most frequent viral disease, after dengue fever. Several epidemics have generated more than 263,000 cases, of which 130,000 alone occurred in the period from 1978 to 1980. Despite its clinical relevance, little is known about OROV pathogenesis and there is no such treatment to prevent this fever. The there so much specific diagnosis is present which can detect the virus and symptoms of oropouche include symptoms related to dengue fever which are chills, headache, anorexia, muscle pain and joint pain and vomiting. Patients may develop symptoms of meningitis. Diagnosis is achieved by dosing the serum levels of the specific antibody to the virus.
The illness has no specific therapy, but usually symptomatic treatment is introduced, by using certain oral analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents, which should be prescribed by a physician, because some of them (such as aspirin) are dangerous because they reduce blood clotting activity and may aggravate the hemorrhagic effects. Oropouche virus is recently expanding with report of most recent outbreak in the expansion of Amazonian heartland to neighboring parts of South America.
The infection is usually self-limiting and complications are rare. Patients usually recover fully with no long term ill effects. But more chronic affect can show the symptoms of meningitis. OROV virus is seen to undergo cell apoptosis by DNA fragmentation it can lead to further future techniques to develop any anti-cancer therapy or other treatments.