World Down Syndrome Day is observed every year on 21st march across the globe. The main purpose behind observing this day is to make people aware about this disorder. On World Down Syndrome Day, people diagnosed with Down syndrome participate in activities and events which lay special emphasis on raising public awareness about the rights, inclusion and well being of people with Down syndrome.
What is Down syndrome?
Down syndrome, also known as Trisomy 21, is a genetic disease, occurs due an inheritance of full or partial extra copy of chromosome 21. This disorder affects a child’s overall development, physically as well as mentally. Down syndrome often leads to congenital heart diseases in children which can be treated with surgery.
How prevalent is Down syndrome?
Down syndrome is very common children with this disorder can be found in almost every country. In India, number of babies with Down syndrome are estimated to be between 23,000- 29,000, which is unfortunately the highest in the world. Moreover, as per WHO, 1 out of every 1000 children is likely to born with this disease.
Symptoms of Down syndrome
Though not all kids with Down syndrome have similar features, one thing in common is distinct facial appearance. Other symptoms of Down syndrome include:
Types of Down syndrome
- Flattened facial features
- Small head
- Short neck
- Protruding tongue
- Upward slanting eyes, unusual for the child's age group
- Unusually shaped or small ears
- Poor muscle tone
- Broad, short hands with a single crease in the palm
- Relatively short fingers and small hands and feet
- Excessive flexibility
- Tiny white spots on the coloured part (iris) of the eye
- Short height
There are three forms of Down syndrome:
It refers to as an additional copy of chromosome 21 in every cell. This is the most common form of Down syndrome.
It occurs when a child is born with an extra chromosome in some but not all of their cells.
in Translocation, children have only an extra part of chromosome 21.
Medical conditions associated with Down syndrome
Treatment of Down syndrome
There is no treatment for Down syndrome, but there are a range of support and educational programs that can help children deal with the symptoms easily. In these programs, special educators and therapists will teach your children:
Remember, children with Down syndrome need special attention, love and care. They can only lead a happy life with proper medical care
and family support. Therefore, parents play an instrumental role in shaping the future of children with Down syndrome.