Bone marrow is a delicate tissue inside the bones. Bone marrow is responsible for the production of red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and blood platelets. The role of the red blood cells is to carry oxygen throughout the body and the function of white blood cells and platelets is to fight infections and control bleeding.
There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow and yellow marrow. Red marrow is mainly located inside the flat bones such as skulls, shoulder blades, vertebrates, hipbone, sternum, and yellow marrow is located at the epiphyseal ends of long bones such as the femurs and humerus.
Why a bone marrow transplant is done?
When a bone marrow of a person is not able to function properly, either result in the lack of production of essential blood cells needed by the body or the over production of blood cells which is harmful for the body. The bone marrow gets, affected due to disease, an infection, or cancer treatment. Therefore, a bone marrow transplant is, done so that body can continue its function to produce healthy blood cells.
A bone marrow transplant is a medical procedure done to replace damaged bone marrow with a healthy bone marrow. There are two types of, bone marrow transplant- an autologous transplant that uses a person’s own cells collected from the bloodstream and allogeneic transplant that uses a donor marrow cells.
Some other reasons that make bone marrow transplant inevitable
Preparing for a bone marrow transplant
- Sickle cell anemia, that causes breakdown of red blood cells
- Impaired bone marrow due to chemotherapy
- Aplastic anemia in which marrow discontinues making new blood cells
- Thalassemia disorder, in which marrow produces abnormal hemoglobin
- Cancers such as leukemia, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma
Complications related to a bone marrow transplant
- Before, bone marrow transplant, a diagnosis is done, which, discovers what kind of bone marrow cells the patient requires.
- A diagnosis may involve radiation or chemotherapy. This therapy kills all the cancer cells before you get the new stem cells.
- Diagnosis of the patient condition tells what type of bone marrow transplant is required and if, allogeneic transplant is required, there is a need of a donor with a genetic match.
Some facts related to Bone marrow transplant
- The complications associated with a bone marrow transplant depends upon the patients overall health, age, type of marrow transplant, and other diseases.
- The most common complications associated with a bone marrow transplant are, shortness of breath, fever, chills, nausea, and low blood pressure.
- Some severe complications of bone marrow transplant are Infections, Graft versus host disease, in which donor marrow cells attack your body, Internal bleeding, Cataract, Inflammation in mouth, throat, and stomach, Anemia
- The predicted rate of survival in allogeneic bone marrow transplant is 62%.
- Leukemia, a bone marrow disorder kills more children every year, than any other cancer.
- The 70% of patients of bone marrow transplant do not find a matching donor in their family.
- After transplantation, a donor’s marrow replaces itself within four to six weeks.
- The most needed marrow donors are 18-25 years old.
- The cost of getting a bone marrow transplant in India is between Rs20 lakh to 30Lakh. The cost comes down by 40% in some state run government hospitals.
- About 35-40% of leukemia cases in India require allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.