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Assisted Reproductive Technologies- What are they?

  • Posted on- Feb 07, 2017
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Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) involves manoeuvring of sperm and ova or embryos in vitro with the objective of producing a pregnancy. The technology includes procedures such as in vitro fertilisation-embryo transfer (IVF-ET), gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIFT), intracytoplasmic sperm injection and frozen embryo transfer (FET). IVF-ET is the most performed assisted reproductive technique worldwide, which has helped many couples conceive successfully. ART may be suggested when other forms of treatment such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) have not been successful or when there is severe male infertility, endometriosis or tubal blockage.

In vitro fertilisation (IVF)

An IVF procedure is helpful in treating infertility caused due to oligospermia, sperm antibodies, tubal blockage, endometriosis or infertility that cannot be explained. The technique involves the following stages:

  • Controlled ovarian hyper-stimulation
  • Oocyte retrieval
  • Fertilisation
  • Embryo Culture
  • Embryo Transfer

An IVF procedure carries higher risk of birth defects, but experts are uncertain whether the increased risk is due to IVF or to factors contributing to infertility infertility itself increases risk of birth defects.

Gamete intrafallopian tube transfer (GIFT)

Gamete intrafallopian tube transfer is an alternative to IVF but is less commonly used today because of IVF’s higher success rate. GIFT is usually used in women who suffer from unexplained infertility along with tubal blockage and endometriosis.

In a GIFT procedure, several oocytes and sperm are obtained as for IVF but are transferred transvaginally with ultrasound guidance or laparoscopically to the distal fallopian tubes, where fertilisation happens.

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection technique is used when other fertility treatments have failed to deliver positive results or if there is a presence of severe sperm disorder.

Risk of birth defects may increase after administering an intracytoplasmic sperm injection because the procedure can damage the sperm, egg, or embryo. Infertility treatment can create a comprehensive range of emotions.

Extreme patience, uncertainty, and the rigours of treatment can lead to feelings of frustration, confusion, and resentment. It’s better to know more about the tests and treatments because then it will generate less anxiety and concern. Advanced infertility procedures require time and energy, as well as an emotional and financial commitment. Therefore, an effort should be made to make this difficult time as comfortable and manageable as possible.

Comments

user profile image
08-09-2017 05:06 PM

It is the most performed assisted reproductive technique worldwide, which has helped many couples conceive successfully.

user profile image
05-06-2017 04:52 PM

Great information shared. Keep it up.

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