Granuloma Inguinale is a rare sexually transmitted disease (STD) that is caused by Klebsiella granulomatis bacteria. The most important risk factor for having this disease is unprotected sexual intercourse with multiple partners.
One of the most important symptoms of this disease is the presence of painless, beefy red sores in the genital region or anus, which may bleed easily if injured.
Antibiotics, like streptomycin and erythromycin are the mainstay of treatment for Granuloma Inguinale. These are typically recommended for a period of 3-4 weeks.
What are the causes of Granuloma Inguinale?
Granuloma Inguinale is caused by a rod-shaped bacterium which is known as Klebsiella granulomatis.
The mode of transmission of this infection is through the sexual route Granuloma Inguinale is a sexually-transmitted infection. This bacterium is also known as Donovania granulomatis, and hence, Granuloma Inguinale is also known as Donovanosis.
How is Granuloma Inguinale Diagnosed?
An accurate diagnosis of Granuloma Inguinale might involve the following procedures and exams:
- Complete evaluation of medical history, along with a thorough physical examination
- Genital examination to check for skin ulcers that are painless, likely to bleed, irregular in shape, or are fairly large in size
- Scraping or biopsy of the lesion: It is one of the confirmatory diagnostic tests used for Granuloma Inguinale. The technique involves injecting a local anesthetic so that a tissue sample may be taken. The sample is stained with Wrights stain, which will turn Donovan bodies dark purple. Donovan bodies present in skin tissue can help confirm Granuloma Inguinale diagnosis
What are the Signs and Symptoms of Granuloma Inguinale?
When an individual gets infected with the causative bacteria, it may take up to 12 weeks for the symptoms of Granuloma Inguinale to become apparent.
In many cases, the initial sores can go unnoticed, as they may not be painful or at a directly visible location.
In affected individuals, initial signs are typically observed in the genital region. The signs and symptoms of Granuloma Inguinale may include:
- Presence of red bumps near the groin, genital or anal region
- Sores around the genitals or anus
- Bleeding from the sores
- Skin discoloration around the genitals
- Foul-smelling ulcers that are characterized by granulation tissue around the edges
- There can be associated fever due to the infection
How is Granuloma Inguinale Treated?
- Oral antibiotics are most effectively used to treat Granuloma Inguinale, some of them are – Ampicillin, Erythromycin, Tetracycline and Streptomycin
- These are typically prescribed for a duration of 3-4 weeks
- The antibiotic course should be completed as prescribed by the doctor, even if the visible signs and symptoms of the condition disappear