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Cardiac Valve Stenosis

  • Posted on- Jul 19, 2017
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Stenosis is the term for a valve that doesn't open properly. The flaps of a valve thicken, stiffen, or fuse together. As a result, the valve can't completely open. Thus, the heart has to work harder to pump blood through the valve, and the body may suffer from a reduced supply of oxygen.


Symptoms

Symptoms of cardiac valve stenosis:

  • Aortic stenosis: Certain symptoms for aortic stenosis may include:
  • Chest pain or pressure (angina). Feeling heavy, tight feeling in the heart.
  • Feeling dizzy or faint.
  • Feeling tired and being short of breath.
  • A feeling that heart is pounding, racing, or beating unevenly (palpitations).
  • Tricuspid stenosis: Certain symptoms may include:
  • Tired and lethargic
  • Fragility
  • A quivering feeling in the neck
  • A rapid, irregular heartbeat called a palpitation, or both.
  • Pain in the upper right part of the abdomen which may be caused by an enlarged, congested liver.
  • Pulmonary stenosis: Certain symptoms may include:
  • Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
  • Chest pain (angina)
  • Fainting (syncope)
  • Cyanosis (blueness)
  • Mitral stenosis: Certain symptoms may include:
  • Cough, with or without blood
  • Chest pain, or chest discomfort
  • Fatigue
  • Swelling in ankles and/or feet
  • Respiratory infections
  • Plum-colored cheeks

Types of stenosis may include:

  • Aortic stenosis: Aortic valve stenosis is the narrowing of the aortic valve. The aortic valve allows blood to flow from the heart's lower left chamber (ventricle) into the aorta and to the body. Stenosis keeps the valve from opening appropriately, forcing the heart to work harder to pump blood through the valve. This causes pressure to build up in the left ventricle and thickens the heart muscle.
  • Tricuspid stenosis: Tricuspid stenosis is a narrowing of the tricuspid valve opening. Tricuspid stenosis confines blood flow between the upper and lower part of the right side of the heart, or from the right atrium (higher right chamber) to the right ventricle (higher left chamber).
  • Pulmonary stenosis: Pulmonary stenosis is a condition caused by a narrowing of the pulmonary valve opening. Pulmonary stenosis restricts blood flow from the lower right chamber (right ventricle) to the pulmonary arteries, which delivers blood to the lungs.
  • Mitral stenosis: Mitral stenosis is a narrowing of the mitral valve opening. Mitral stenosis restricts blood flow from the left atrium (lower right chamber) to the left ventricle (lower left chamber).

Causes of different stenosis:

  • Aortic stenosis: There may be certain causes, which include:
  • Calcium buildup on the aortic valve. With increasing age, calcium can build up on the valve, making it hard and thick. This buildup happens over time, so symptoms usually don't appear until after age 65.
  • A heart defect a person is born with (congenital).
  • Rheumatic fever or endocarditis, These infections can damage the valve.
  • Tricuspid stenosis: This stenosis can be caused by:
  • It mostly develop due to rheumatic fever in childhood, which is caused by streptococcus bacteria
  • The second rare case may be due to tumour or connective tissue disease
  • And there may be person born with a heart defect (congenital)
  • Pulmonary stenosis: Pulmonary stenosis can be developed due to:
  • It is most commonly result of congenital birth defect (present from birth).
  • Certain infections can cause it in adult, which include rheaumatic fever and carcinoid tumours.
  • Mitral stenosis: There may be some causes which include:
  • It mostly develop due to rheumatic fever in childhood, which is caused by streptococcus bacteria
  • The other rare cause may involve calcium buildup in the valve.
  • Other causes may include tumours, blood clot, radiation treatment, and congenital heart diseases.


Treatment

Treatments of cardiac valve stenosis:

  • Aortic stenosis: Treatments may include:
  • Monitoring: In case of mild stenosis, doctors might advise to have regular heart check-ups, so if the stenosis becomes severe it can be traced.
  • Medications: No medications can release blockage in stenosis, but there may be some medicines which can give relieve to different symptoms such as fast heart beat, chest pain etc.
  • Surgery: In case of severe stenosis, surgery may be the final option. Replacement of the aortic valve may be the option to release a person from stenosis.
  • Tricuspid stenosis: Treatments may include:
  • Monitoring: In case of mild stenosis, doctors might advise to have regular heart check-ups, so if the stenosis becomes severe it can be traced.
  • Medications: No medications can release blockage in stenosis, but there may be some medicines which can give relieve to different symptoms such as fast heart beat, chest pain etc.
  • Surgery: In case of severe stenosis, surgery may be the final option. Replacement of the damaged valve with biological or mechanical devices may be the option to release a person from stenosis.
  • Pulmonary stenosis: Treatments may include:
  • Monitoring: In case of mild stenosis, doctors might advise to have regular heart check-ups, so if the stenosis becomes severe it can be traced.
  • Medications: No medications can release blockage in stenosis, but there may be some medicines which can give relieve to different symptoms such as fast heart beat, chest pain etc.
  • Surgery: In case of severe stenosis, surgery may be the final option. Surgical procedure known as a valvuloplasty can stretch the pulmonary valve's walls, enlarging it to improve blood flow. Or in some cases replacing the pulmonary valve may be the option to release a person from stenosis.
  • Mitral stenosis: Certain treatments may include:
  • Monitoring: In case of mild stenosis, doctors might advise to have regular heart check-ups, so if the stenosis becomes severe it can be traced.
  • Medications: No medications can release blockage in stenosis, but there may be some medicines which can give relieve to different symptoms such as fast heart beat, chest pain etc.
  • Surgery: In case of severe stenosis, surgery may be the final option. Replacement of the existing mitral valves with new ones, or repairing the existing mitral valves may be the option to release a person from stenosis

Diagnosis of cardiac valve stenosis:

  • Aortic stenosis: Certain diagnosis tests may include:
  • Physical test which may e done to hear a heart murmur, click or heart sound using stethoscope.
  • Stress test to follow the heart beat during exercise.
  • Echocardiogram, which shows moving pictures of the heart
  • Electrocardiogram, which measures the electric activity of the heart
  • Left cardiac catheterization, passage of thin tube in the left side of the heart to diagnose and treat certain problems.
  • Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), which produces pictures of the heart.
  • Tricuspid stenosis: Certain diagnose may include:
  • Physical test which may e done to hear a heart murmur, click or heart sound using stethoscope.
  • Stress test to follow the heart beat during exercise.
  • Echocardiogram, which shows moving pictures of the heart
  • Electrocardiogram, which measures the electric activity of the heart
  • Cardiac catheterization, passage of thin tube inside the heart to diagnose and treat certain problems.
  • Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), which produces pictures of the heart
  • Pulmonary stenosis: Certain diagnose may include:
  • Physical test which may e done to hear a heart murmur, click or heart sound using stethoscope.
  • Stress test to follow the heart beat during exercise.
  • Chest X-ray
  • Echocardiogram, which shows moving pictures of the heart
  • Cardiac catheterization, passage of thin tube inside the heart to diagnose and treat certain problems.
  • Transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE), which produces pictures of the heart
  • Mitral stenosis: Certain diagnose test may include:
  • Physical test which may e done to hear a heart murmur, click or heart sound using stethoscope.
  • Stress test to follow the heart beat during exercise.
  • Echocardiogram, which shows moving pictures of the heart
  • Electrocardiogram, which measures the electric activity of the heart
  • Cardiac catheterization, passage of thin tube inside the heart to diagnose and treat certain problems.

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