Blood are transported through arteries in brain to deliver oxygen and nutrients, after the work is done are blood is taken back to the heart by small veins released into large veins and then from neck to the heart. Blood clot in the vein which carries blood back from the brain to the heart is called cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, in common term as cerebral thrombosis. There are many names of this disease called by doctor such as cerebral venous thrombosis, cerebral vein thrombosis etc.
Symptoms of CVST:
- Obstruction of blood flow from a clot in vessels lead to back up of blood and increasing blood pressure in the blood vessels which can cause swelling of the affected area.
- The swelling leads to headache, the pressure can damage the blood vessels and show stroke like symptoms.
- The increased pressure can also lead to rupture of blood vessels and bleeding into the brain.
- The phenomenon is known as "Cerebral hemorrhage", it can lead to further damage of brain tissue.
- Blurred Vision, Fainting and loss of consciousness, Seizures
- Cases of CSVT are very low, as of 5 in 1 million people in adults, and 3 in 1 million people in children's under age 18.
Causes of CSVT:
- The major causes of CSVT in the newborns are infection. Infection of the inner ear (otitis), the bone behind the ear (mastoiditis), the mouth, face or neck can be the causes.
- There can be other factors such as hormone therapy, birth control pill, certain medications can increase the risk of it.
- Pregnancy can also be the cause of CSVT.
Risk factor of CSVT:
- Children Showing major risk factors are-
- Children's have the major risk of having CSVT in the first month of their birth. The disease can be inherited from the mother to the child.
- Child with problems with the way their blood forms clots such as sickle cell anemia, Beta-thalassemia major, chronic hemolytic anemia.
- Heart disease - either congenital (born with it) or acquired.
- Iron deficiency
- Certain infections
- Head injury
- Risk factors for adults include:
- Pregnancy and the first few weeks after delivery
- Problems with blood clotting.
- Collagen vascular diseases like lupus, Wegener's granulomatosis, and Behcet syndrome
- Low blood pressure in the brain (intracranial hypotension)
Treatment of CSVT:
- The foremost treatment for CSVT is by giving anticoagulant to the patient. Anticoagulant dissolves blood clot and avoid from further arising of blood clot.
- Anticoagulants such as heparin and other blood thinners can help.
- For the thrombosis which is caused by infection, antibiotics are given for its prevention.
- Certain severe thrombosis can also lead to coma of the patient, in that case keeping the patient in intensive care unit and continued monitoring of the patient is needed.
- Ant seizures are also provided to reduce any seizure in the brain.
Diagnosis of CSVT:
- The first method used to diagnose a clot or bleeding in the blood is by CT or MRI scans.
- But in most of the cases the bleeding can be missed in these two techniques, so a Venography of vein should be done where images of the vein are taken are taken to know about any particular bleeding in the vein.
- In the condition of deep vein CSVT a MRI venogram is more preferred over a CT venogram.
- Certain blood tests can be done to know if any infection is present in the body which can lead to the condition of thrombosis.
Through CSVT is an uncommon disease, it can be very fatal if neglected. Certain severe cases can lead to coma or even death. Proper evaluation of symptoms and knowing of the risk factors in early can stop the condition from getting fatal.