Myocardial Infarction is a medical term used to define heart attack. Myocardial infarction occurs when the flow of blood to the heart is blocked. A heart attack can damage the tissues of the heart, which can result in sudden death of a person. The duration of heart attack depends upon patient to patient, sometimes a person dies immediately after the symptoms occur.
Causes of Myocardial infarction
Due to buildup of plaque, the oxygen and nutrient rich blood is not able to reach to the heart. The buildup of plaque in the artery that supplies blood to the heart becomes narrow. The lack of blood supply to the heart affects its overall functioning. There are numerous factors that may contribute in the development of plaque in the artery. Some of the factors that cause Myocardial infarction are listed below:
High Level of Bad Cholesterol- Bad cholesterol or LDL can stick to artery walls and produce plaque. Plaque obstructs the proper flow of blood to the heart.
Trans fats and saturated fats- Both these fats contribute in the development of plaque in the coronary arteries. These fats are present in abundance in our day-to-day foods, such as ghee, butter, meat, and cheese. These fats increase the amount of bad cholesterol in the body, which eventually leads in plaque buildup.
Risk factors of Myocardial infarction
There are various risk factors associated with Myocardial infarction some of them are:
The most common symptoms of Myocardial infarction or heart attack is sudden and severe pain in the chest. The pain during the heart attack can spread to neck, jaw, arms, and abdomen. The chest pain during the Myocardial infarction can be described as burning, pressing, heavy, stabbing or squeezing. However, not all people who have heart attack experience the same symptoms. Some common symptoms of Myocardial infarction are:
Diagnosis of Myocardial infarction
At first, a cardiologist will use stethoscope to check if there are any irregularities with the heartbeat. A physical test will determine whether a patient had a heart attack or not. To know more about the condition the doctor will order diagnostic tests, which may include:
The patient of Myocardial infarction needs immediate treatment. The treatment of Myocardial infarction depends upon the patient’s condition. As soon as possible, the patient must be given an oxygen mask for easy breathing and medicines to reduce the pain. If the patient's heart has stopped beating, first preference is to revive the heartbeat. A cardiologist may use reperfusion therapy when immediate treatment is required.
Blood thinner and nitroglycerin will be, given to the patient to prevent the blood clotting and to widen the blood vessels. Other medicines such as beta-blockers and ACE inhibitors are given to calm down the high blood pressure and relax the heart muscle. A doctor may also perform surgical procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting to remove the blockage from the arteries.