what is cystocele, causes of cystocele, treatment of cystocele


  • Posted on- Feb 24, 2017
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Cystocele is the name given to hernia like disorder in women. Cystocele occurs when the wall linking the bladder and vagina weakens, as a result the bladder sag into the vagina. Cystocele leads to problems such as discomfort, urinary difficulties, and stress incontinence. The oestrogen hormone produced in the women’s body keeps the vaginal muscles strong, but after menopause, the production of oestrogen is stopped and as a result, those vaginal muscles become weak.

Cystocele disorder is also known as prolapsed bladder or fallen bladder. Cystocele disorder is divided into 4 stages: mild, moderate, severe, and complete. These stages are, graded on the basis of sagging of bladder into the vagina.

Causes of Cystocele

The most common factors related with Cystocele or prolapsed bladder are: 

  • Menopause- When the production of oestrogen hormone is stopped. This generally happens after the menopause. The oestrogen hormone is responsible for giving strength and health to the vaginal muscles.
  • Child birth- The delivery process creates an excess pressure on the vaginal tissue and muscles. The vaginal tissue and muscle supports the woman bladder, but after childbirth, they may become weak.
  • Staining- There is multiple causes that may create strain in the groin area. Lifting heavy weights, long-term cough and constipation, which may damage the muscles of the pelvic floor.


The symptoms of cystocele are visible after the first stage. The most common symptom of cystocele is noticing pressure in the vagina or bladder. Other symptoms of cystocele may include:

Diagnosis of Cystocele

A pelvic exam is carried out in the diagnosis of cystocele. The extent to which the bladder has entered the vagina is, checked through this test.

The doctor may also use a voiding cystourethrogram for diagnosing cystocele. Cystourethrogram is a sequence of x-rays that are, taken during the urination.

Cystoscopy is a procedure in which a scope is, inserted into women’s abdomen. This test lets the urologist see inside the abdomen. The doctor may also perform an EKG test to diagnose cystocele.


Medications, therapy, and surgery are, used for the treatment of cystocele. Before choosing a treatment, a doctor analyses the patient’s general health, age, and severity of the condition.

Estrogen replacement therapy- Also known as hormone replacement therapy, it is done to reduce the symptoms of cystocele and protects against osteoporosis.

Pessary- A mechanical device known as pessary is placed inside the vagina to hold the sagging bladder in place. However, there is a risk of infection, if pessary is not cleaned at regular intervals.

Kegel exercises- The kegel exercises help to strengthen the vaginal wall and tighten the pelvic floor muscles. Kegel exercises are very effective in the treatment of mild cystocele and there are no side effects associated with it.

Electrical stimulation- A small electrical device is used that measure and delivers small electrical currents to contraction the muscles, these contractions of muscles strengthen the pelvic muscles.

Prolapsed bladder surgery- It is a minor surgery performed to repair and strengthen the bladder. A patient is on general anaesthesia during the surgery.


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