A fistula is an abnormal connection that has developed between the two organs in the body or between the skin and any organ in the body. An abnormal connection that has been, formed in the wall of the vagina is known as vaginal fistula. There are four main kinds of fistula:
Causes of Vaginal Fistula
- The passage or hole that forms between the vagina and urinary tract is known as vesicovaginal fistula.
- The passage or hole that forms between the vagina and the rectum is known as rectovaginal fistula.
- The passage or hole that forms between the vagina and the colon is known as colovaginal fistula.
- The passage or hole that forms between the vagina and the bowel is known as enterovaginal fistula.
The most common cause of the vaginal fistula is a breakdown of tissue in a specific area in the organ. The damaged tissue forces the fistula to open up. Vaginal fistula is common among young mothers. Sometimes, after delivery complications such as vaginal, bladder, or rectal damage
can also cause vaginal fistula. Some other causes of vaginal fistula include:
The symptoms of vaginal fistula depend upon the size and the location of the fistula. If symptoms are present from long time, there is a risk of developing an infection. It is important to consult a physician or a gynaecologist, if any of the following symptoms occur.
Diagnosis of Vaginal fistula
There are various methods used for the diagnosis of a vaginal fistula. The doctor will start a diagnosis by doing a physical exam. This physical test will examine the defected vagina, premium, or anus. A doctor may also use a speculum to look inside your vagina. Other diagnostic tests done for diagnosis of vaginal fistula are-
- CT (Computerised tomography) scan
- MRI ( Magnetic Resource Imaging)
- Blood test
- Urine analysis
- Anorectal manometary
- Contrast tests
- Blue dye test
The treatment of vaginal fistula depends on the cause and severity of the symptoms. The treatment of vaginal fistula includes medicine and surgery.
Medicines for the treatment of Vaginal Fistula
Surgical treatment of Vaginal Fistula
- Antibiotics- Antibiotics are given to a patient of vaginal fistula to reduce the risk of infection and Crohn’s disease.
- Infliximab- Inflixmab drugs are given to a patient of vaginal fistula to reduce the inflammation and speed up the recovery process.
If a patient is not getting any relief from the medicines, a gynaecologic surgeon will perform a surgery to close the opening of fistula tract. Surgical methods include:
- Tissue grafting
- Applying patch of biological tissue into the fistula
- Sewing an anal fistula