Hemophilia is a genetic bleeding disorder in which body loses the ability to stop bleeding due to low levels or absence of proteins known as ‘’clotting factors’’ which are necessary for clotting of blood. Hemophilia leads to excessive bleeding. The function of the clotting factors is to make your blood thicker. There are 13 types of clotting factors, which work with small blood cells formed in bone marrow. Even a small injury in Hemophilia patients results in excessive bleeding and takes more than required time to clot. There are more than 1 million cases every year in India of this rare but serious disorder.
The three types of Hemophilia are Hemophilia- A, B, and, C. Hemophilia A is caused, due to the deficiency of factor VIII Hemophilia B is caused due the deficiency of factor IX and Hemophilia C is caused due to the deficiency of factor XI. Hemophilia C may occur after surgery.
There is also very rare case that a person may develop Hemophilia after the birth. This type Hemophilia is known as Acquired Hemophilia.
The main signs and symptoms of Hemophilia depend upon the type of bleeding. The bleeding may be internal or external. Internal bleeding due to Hemophilia causes more complications than external bleeding.
Symptoms of Internal Bleeding are:
- Blood in the urine or excreta
- Bleeding in the intestine, stomach or kidneys
- Bleeding in the knees, elbows, and other joints
Symptoms of External Bleeding are:
Symptoms of Bleeding in the brain are:
Diagnosis of Hemophilia
- Frequent vomiting
- Blurred vision
- Extreme weakness in arms and legs
The most common method for diagnosing Hemophilia is a blood test
. The sample of blood taken from your vein indicates the factors responsible for Hemophilia. The blood test measures the amount of plasma present in your blood the low level of plasma in the blood indicates the severity of this bleeding disorder
The treatment of this disease depends upon the type of Hemophilia a patient has. The treatment of each type of Hemophilia varies according to its type.
- The treatment of Hemophilia A focuses on the hormone called, Desmopressin. This hormone is given as an injection in the patient’s vein. The Desmopressin hormone restores the factors important for clotting of blood.
- Hemophilia B is treated by infusing donor’s blood into the patient’s body, which lacks clotting factors. The clotting factors present the donor’s blood promotes the process of clotting of blood.
- Hemophilia C occurs due to the lack of plasma count in the body. Therefore, plasma infusion is done into the blood to combat the excessive bleeding.