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Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)

  • Posted on- Aug 14, 2015
  • 407 Views

Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic respiratory disease that most often occurs in low-weight or premature infants who have received supplemental oxygen or have spent long periods of time on a breathing machine (mechanical ventilation), such as infants who have acute respiratory distress syndrome. The disease can also occur in older infants who experience abnormal lung development or some infants that have had an infection before birth (antenatal infection) or placental abnormalities.

Causes of Bronchopulmonary dysplasia

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is caused by damage to the delicate tissue of the lungs. This damage is most often occurs in infants who have required extended treatment with supplemental oxygen or breathing assistance with a machine (mechanical ventilation) such as infants who are born prematurely and have acute respiratory distress syndrome.

When infants receive mechanical ventilation, a tube is inserted through the windpipe and the machine pushes air into the lungs, which are often underdeveloped in premature infants. In some cases, the levels of oxygen required for an affected infant to survive are higher than normally would be found in the air we breathe. Over time, the constant pressure from the ventilator and the excess oxygen levels can damage the delicate tissues of an infant’s lungs causing inflammation and scarring.

The exact, underlying mechanisms that cause classic or new Bronchopulmonary dysplasia are complex and not fully understood. The causes of Bronchopulmonary dysplasia in one infant may be different from the causes in another. Most likely, multiple different environmental and genetic factors all play a role in the development of the disorder.

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